Rocky intertidal community dynamics

  1. Sousa, W.P. 1979.  Experimental investigations of disturbance and ecological succession in a rocky intertidal algal community.  Ecological Monographs 49:227-254. (ESA Mercer Award) pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. 1979.  Disturbance in marine intertidal boulder fields: the nonequilibrium maintenance of species diversity.  Ecology 60:1225-1239. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. 1980.  The response of a community to disturbance: the importance of successional age and species' life histories.  Oecologia 45:72-81. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P., S.C. Schroeter, and S.D. Gaines. 1981.  Latitudinal variation in intertidal algal community structure: the influence of grazing and vegetative propagation.  Oecologia 48:297-307. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. 1984.  Intertidal mosaics: patch size, propagule availability, and spatially variable patterns of succession.  Ecology 65:1918-1935 pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. 1985.  Disturbance and patch dynamics on rocky intertidal shores.  Pages 101-124 in S.T.A. Pickett and P.S. White, eds.  The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics.  Academic Press, New York. pdf


  1. Foster, M.S. and W.P. Sousa. 1985.  Succession.  Pages 269-290 in M.M. Littler and D.S. Littler, eds.  Handbook of Phycological Methods--Ecological Field Methods: Macroalgae.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. and J.H. Connell. 1991.  Grazing and succession.  Pages 425-441 in D.M. John, S.J. Hawkins, and J.H. Price, eds.  Plant-Animal Interactions in the Marine Benthos, Systematics Association Special Volume No. 46, Clarendon Press, Oxford. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. 2001.  Natural disturbance and the dynamics of marine benthic communities.  Pages 85-130 in M.D. Bertness, S. Gaines, and M.E. Hay, eds.  Marine Community Ecology, Sinauer Assoc., Sunderland, MA. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P.  2007. Disturbance.  Pages 186-193 in M.W. Denny and S.D. Gaines, editors. Encyclopedia of Tidepools and Rocky Shores. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P.  2007.  Rolling boulders across the Pacific. Text box (pp 159-160) in Minchinton, T.E. 2007. Natural disturbance and regeneration of marine benthic communities. Pages 138-174 in S.D. Connell and B. Gillanders, editors. Marine Ecology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pdf


Host-parasite interactions


  1. Sousa, W.P. 1983.  Host life history and the effect of parasitic castration on growth:  a field study of Cerithidea californica Haldeman (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) and its trematode parasites.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 73:273-296. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. and M. Gleason. 1989.  Does parasitic infection compromise host survival under extreme environmental conditions: the case for Cerithidea californica (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)?  Oecologia 80:456-464. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. 1990.  Spatial scale and the processes structuring a guild of larval trematode parasites.  Pages 41-67 in G.W. Esch, A.O. Bush, and J.M. Aho, eds. Parasite Communities: Patterns and Processes.  Chapman and Hall, London. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. and E.D. Grosholz. 1990. The influence of habitat structure on the transmission of parasites.  Pages 300-324 in S.S. Bell, E.D. McCoy, and H.R. Mushinsky, eds.  Habitat Structure: The Physical Arrangement of Objects in Space, Chapman and Hall, London. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. 1991.  Can models of soft-sediment community structure be complete without parasites?  American Zoologist 31:821-830. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. 1992.  Interspecific interactions among larval trematode parasites of freshwater and marine snails.  American Zoologist 32:583-592. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. 1993.  Size-dependent predation on the salt-marsh snail Cerithidea californica Haldeman.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 166:19-37. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. 1993.  Interspecific antagonism and species coexistence in a diverse guild of larval trematode parasites.  Ecological Monographs 63:103-128. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. 1994.  Patterns and processes in communities of helminth parasites.  Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9: 52-57. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. 1994.  Interactive versus isolationist helminth communities reconsidered: a reply to V. Haukisalmi.  Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9: 344-345. pdf


Mangrove forest structure and dynamics


  1. Sousa, W.P. and B.J. Mitchell.  1999.  The effect of seed predators on plant distributions: is there a general pattern in mangroves?  Oikos 86:55-66. pdf


  1. Gilbert, G.S. and W.P. Sousa.  2002.  Host specialization among wood-decay polypore fungi in a Caribbean mangrove forest.  Biotropica 34:396-404. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P., P.G. Kennedy, and B.J. Mitchell.  2003.  Propagule size and predispersal damage by insects affect establishment and early growth of mangrove seedlings.  Oecologia 135:564-575. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P., S.P. Quek, and B.J. Mitchell.  2003.  Regeneration of Rhizophora mangle in a Caribbean mangrove forest: interacting effects of canopy disturbance and a stem-boring beetle.  Oecologia 137: 436-445. pdf


  1. Wang, L., W.P. Sousa, P. Gong, and G.S. Biging.  2004.  Comparison of IKONOS and QuickBird images for mapping mangrove species on the Caribbean coast of Panama.  Remote Sensing of Environment 91:432-440. pdf


  1. Wang, L., W.P. Sousa, and P. Gong.  2004.  Integration of object-based and pixel-based classification for mangrove mapping with IKONOS imagery.  International Journal of Remote Sensing 25:5655-5668. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P., P.G. Kennedy, B.J. Mitchell, and B. M. Ordóñez L.  2007.  Mangrove forest structure and dynamics, Punta Galeta, Panama.  Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 88:46-49. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P., P.G. Kennedy, B.J. Mitchell, and B. M. Ordóñez L.  2007.  Supply-side ecology in mangroves: do propagule dispersal and seedling establishment explain forest structure?  Ecological Monographs 77:53-76. pdf


  1. Krauss, K.W., C.E. Lovelock, K.L. McKee, L. López-Hoffman, S.M.L. Ewe, and W.P. Sousa.  2008.  Environmental drivers in mangrove establishment and early development: a review.  Aquatic Botany 89:105-127. pdf


  1. Wang, L., J.L. Silván Cárdenas, and W.P. Sousa. 2008. Neural network classification of mangrove species from multiseasonal IKONOS imagery.  Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 74:921-927 pdf


  1. Wang, L. and W.P. Sousa.  2009. Distinguishing mangrove species with laboratory measurements of hyperspectral leaf reflectance.  International Journal of Remote Sensing 30:1267-1281. pdf


  1. Wang, L. and W.P. Sousa.  2009. Remote sensing of coastal mangrove forest.  Pages 323-340 in X. Yang, editor, Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technologies for Coastal Ecosystem Assessment and Management. Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. and E.M. Dangremond. 2011. Trophic interactions in coastal and estuarine mangrove forest ecosystems.  Pages 43-93 in J. Luczkovich and J. Wilson, editors, Trophic Relationships of Coastal and Estuarine Ecosystems, Volume 6, Chapter 6 of E. Wolanski and D.S. McLusky, editors, Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science. Waltham: Academic Press. pdf


  1. Asner, G.P., J. Mascaro, C. Anderson, D.E. Knapp, R.E. Martin, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, M. van Breugel, S. Davies, J.S. Hall, H.C. Muller-Landau, C. Potvin, W. Sousa, J. Wright, and E. Bermingham. 2013.  High-fidelity national carbon mapping for resource management and REDD+. Carbon Balance and Management 2013, 8:7. pdf


  1. Dangremond, E.M., I.C. Feller, and W.P. Sousa. 2015. Environmental tolerances of rare and common mangroves along light and salinity gradients. Oecologia 179:1187-1198. pdf


  1. Huxham, M., U. Berger, M.W. Skov, and W.P. Sousa. 2019. Kropotkin’s garden: facilitation in mangrove ecosystems.  Pages 431-447 in S.J. Hawkins, K. Bohn, L.B. Firth, and G.A. Williams, editors, Interactions in the Marine Benthos - Global Patterns and Processes. Systematics Association Special Volume, Cambridge Univ. Press, UK. pdf


Other primary research papers


  1. Thomsen, M., C. D’Antonio, K.B. Suttle, and W.P. Sousa. 2006.  Ecological resistance, seed density, and their interactions determine patterns of invasion in a California coastal grassland.  Ecology Letters 9:160-170. pdf


  1. Kennedy, P.G. and W.P. Sousa. 2006.  Forest encroachment into a Californian grassland: examining the simultaneous effects of facilitation and competition on tree seedling recruitment.  Oecologia 148:464-474. pdf


  1. Metz, M.R., W.P. Sousa, and R. Valencia. 2010. Widespread density-dependent seedling mortality promotes species coexistence in a highly diverse Amazonian rainforest. Ecology 91:3675–3685. pdf


  1. Milton, K., D.W. Armitage, and W.P. Sousa. 2019. Successional loss of two key food tree species best explains a marked decline in group size of Panamanian howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Biotropica 51:600-614. pdf


  1. Hendricks-Franco, L., S.L. Stephens, and W.P. Sousa. 2021. Mammalian herbivory in post-fire chaparral impacts herbaceous composition but not N and C cycling. Plant Ecology 14:213-228. pdf


  1. Halpern, A.A., W.P. Sousa, F.K. Lake, T.J. Carlson, W. Paddock, and W. Tripp on behalf of the Karuk Tribe. 2022. Prescribed fire reduces insect infestation in Karuk and Yurok acorn resource systems. Forest Ecology and Management 505 pdf


  1. Norton, L.E., W.P. Sousa, and B.K. Blackman. 2022. Differentiation in phenotypic plasticity to climate among Eriogonum fasciculatum subsp. foliolosum (Polygonaceae) populations in California. Madroño (in press). pdf


Broad conceptual reviews


  1. Connell, J.H. and W.P. Sousa. 1983.  On the evidence needed to judge ecological stability or persistence.  American Naturalist 121:789-824. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. 1984.  The role of disturbance in natural communities.  Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15:353-391. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P. and J.H. Connell. 1985.  Further comments on the evidence for multiple stable points in natural communities.  American Naturalist 125:612-615. pdf


  1. Flessa, K.W. et al. 1986.  Causes and consequences of extinction.  Group report from Dahlem Conference No. 36, Pages 235-257 in D.M. Raup and D. Jablonski, eds. Patterns and Processes in the History of Life.   Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pdf


  1. Blaustein, A.R., D.B. Wake, and W.P. Sousa.  1994.  Amphibian declines: judging stability, persistence, and susceptibility of populations to local and global extinctions.  Conservation Biology 8:60-71 pdf


Book reviews


  1. Sousa, W.P. 1982.  Marine ecology for students.  Science 217:49-50. pdf


Memorial statements for Professor Joseph H. Connell


  1. Murdoch, W.W., and W.P. Sousa. 2020. Joseph H. Connell (1923-2020): Innovative experimental ecologist. Science 370: 410.  pdf


  1. Lubchenco, J., and W.P. Sousa. 2020. Joseph H. Connell (1923-2020): Ecologist who transformed the study of natural communities. Nature 586: 670. pdf


  1. Sousa, W.P., K.E. Harms, C.M. Tyler, M.D. Lowman, M.J. Keough, P.T. Green, and A. Stewart-Oaten. 2021.  Resolution of respect: Joseph Hurd Connell (1923-2020). Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 102: e01846. pdf


Manuscripts in review or in preparation 


  1. Hendricks-Franco, L., S.L. Stephens, W.L. Silver, and W.P. Sousa. 2022. In post-fire chaparral, ephemeral N-fixing and non-N-fixing herbs impact soil N and C cycling. Ecosphere (in review). pdf


  1. Hayden, C.J., G.K. Roderick, and W.P. Sousa. 2022. Phylogeography of the stem-boring scolytid beetle Coccotrypes rhizophorae Hopkins in Panama: recent invader or long-time resident of New World mangroves? (in preparation). pdf


     56. Sousa, W.P., and B.J. Mitchell. 2022. Insect folivory following canopy disturbance in mangroves on the Caribbean coast of Panama: influences of light environment and leaf traits. (in preparation). pdf